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Maine Field Guide to Invasive Aquatic Plants


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PDF 156 pages 61 weed species identified by Maine Center for Invasive Aquatic Plants Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program. Maine Field Guide to Identification of Invasive Aquatic Plants - Weeds and their common look alikes - www.mainevolunteerlakemonitors.org. The Maine Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program (VLMP), formed in 1971, is the longest standing citizen lake monitoring program in the U.S., and the largest provider of scientific lake data in the State of Maine. Several hundred certified volunteers currently monitor more than 500 lakes through the VLMP.

TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INTRODUCTION . . 1
SECTION 1. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Using the Field Guide . . 2
Plant Communities . . 4
Plant Structure . . 7
Plant Identification Key . . 12

SECTION 2. MAINE'S ELEVEN MOST UNWANTED INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS

FLOATING-LEAF PLANTS
European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae) . . 20
Water Chestnut (Trapa natans) . . 22
Yellow Floating Heart (Nymphoides peltata) . . 24

SUBMERSED PLANTS WITH FINELY-DIVIDED LEAVES
Fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana) . . 26
Water-milfoils (Myriophyllum)
Eurasian Water-milfoil (M. spicatum) . . 28
Variable Water-milfoil (M. heterophyllum) . . 30
Invasive Water-milfoil hybrid (M. heterophyllum x M. laxum) . . 32
Parrot Feather (M. aquaticum) . . 34

SUBMERSED PLANTS WITH UNDIVIDED, BLADE OR STRAP SHAPED LEAVES
Brazilian Waterweed (Egeria densa) . . 36
Curly-leaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus) . . 38
European Naiad (Najas minor) . . 42
Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata) . . 44

SECTION 3. COMMON NATIVE LOOK ALIKE PLANTS

BRAZILIAN WATERWEED AND HYDRILLA LOOK ALIKES
Waterweeds (Elodea) . . 50
Common Waterweed (E. canadensis)
Slender Waterweed (E. nuttallii)
Water Starworts (Callitriche) . . 52
Common Water Starwort (C. palustris)
Large Water Starwort (C. heterophylla)
Mare?s Tail (Hippuris vulgaris) . . 54

CURLY-LEAF PONDWEED LOOK ALIKES
Pondweeds (Potamogeton) . . 56
Clasping-leaf Pondweeds
Perfoliate Pondweed (P. perfoliatus)
Red-head Pondweed (P. richardsonii)
Large-leaf Pondweed (P. amplifolius)
Red Pondweed (P. alpinus)
Variable Pondweed (P. gramineus)
White-stem Pondweed (P. praelongus)

FANWORT AND INVASIVE MILFOIL LOOK ALIKES
Bladderworts (Utricularia) . . 66
Common Bladderwort (U. macrorhiza)
Floating Bladderwort (U. radiata)
Large Purple Bladderwort (U. purpurea)
Northern Bladderwort (U. intermedia)
Hornworts (Ceratophyllum) . . 70
Coontail (C. demersum)
Spiny Hornwort (C. echinatum)
Mermaid Weeds (Proserpinaca) . . 72
Common Mermaid Weed (P. palustris)
Comb-leaf Mermaid Weed (P. pectinata)
Water Marigold (Bidens beckii) . . 74
Water Crowfoots (Ranunculus) . . 76
White Water Crowfoot (R. aquatilis)
Yellow Water Crowfoot (R. flabellaris)
Water-milfoils (Myriophyllum) . . 78
Alternate-flowered Water-milfoil (M. alterniflorum)
Northern Water-milfoil (M. sibiricum)
Whorled Water-milfoil (M. verticillatum)
Farwell?s Water-milfoil (M. farwellii)
Low Water-milfoil (M. humile)
Water-milfoil Species Comparison Chart . . 86

European Frogbit and Yellow Floating Heart LOOK ALIKES
Fragrant Waterlily (Nymphaea odorata) . . 88
Spatterdock (Nuphar variegata) . . 90
Little Floating Heart (Nymphoides cordata) . . 92
Watershield (Brasenia schreberi) . . 94

European Naiad LOOK ALIKES
Pondweeds (Potamogeton) . . 96
Northern Snail-seed Pondweed (P. spirillus)
Slender Pondweeds (P. pusillus, P. berchtoldii, P. gemmiparus)
Naiads (Najas) . . 100
Slender Naiad (N. flexilis)
Thread-Like Naiad (N. gracillima)
Stoneworts (Nitella and Chara) . . 104

SECTION 4. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Conducting a Screening Survey . . 106
If You Find a Suspicious Plant . . 113
Other Invaders on Maine?s Radar Screen . . 115
An Ounce of Prevention . . 129
Sources . . 130
Glossary . . 138
Index to Plants by Common Name . . 142
Index to Plants by Scientific Name . . 144

Regions Impacted: USA, New England, Northeast, Northeastern

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