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Selected Tidal Marsh Plant Species of the San Francisco Estuary

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PDF 97 pages 81 species 87 images Selected Tidal Marsh Plant Species of the San Francisco Estuary Printed March 2007 Prepared for the San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project (a project of the California State Coastal Conservancy) by Peter Baye, Ph.D. Coastal Plant Ecologist

This document was prepared for the State Coastal Conservancy Invasive Spartina Project under contract to Olofson Environmental, Inc., with grant funding from the Calfed Bay Delta Program and California Wildlife Conservation Board.

This guide was prepared to assist Invasive Spartina Project (ISP) staff and volunteers with recognition and accurate field identification of tidal marsh plants that are likely to occur within control project and monitoring sites of the Invasive Spartina Project, San Francisco Estuary, California.

The coverage of tidal marsh plant species conforms with the ISP?s geographic and ecological range of activities, from Benicia (North Bay) to Alviso (South Bay). Eastern and northern Suisun Marsh is excluded geographically because the ISP has no project sites there. The geographic scope of this guide is primarily San Francisco and San Pablo Bay, including the extreme western portions of the Suisun Bay and Grizzly Bay area

Broadleaf plants (Dicots)

Carpetweed family (Aizoaceae)
Iceplant: Carpobrotus edulis x chilensis
Slender-leaf iceplant ? Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum
New Zealand spinach ? Tetragonia tetragonioides

Amaranth family (Amaranthaceae)
Spearscale ? Atriplex triangularis (A. prostrata)
Wild beet ? Beta vulgaris
Annual pickleweed ? Salicornia europaea
Pickleweed ? Salicornia subterminalis (Arthrocnemum subterminale)
Perennial pickleweed ? Salicornia virginica (Sarcocornia pacifica)
Mediterranean saltword ? Salsola soda
California sea-blite ? Suaeda californica

Carrot family (Apiaceae)
Wild celery ? Apium graveolens
Mason?s lilaeopsis ? Lilaeopsis masonii
Ditch-carrot ? Oenanthe sarmentosa

Aster family (Asteraceae)
Pacific aster ? Aster chilensis
Suisun Marsh aster ? Aster lentus
Saltmarsh mulefat ? Baccharis douglasii
Coyote-brush ? Baccharis pilularis
Brass-buttons ? Cotula coronopifolia
Western goldenrod ? Euthamia occidentalis
San Francisco Bay gumplant ? Grindelia stricta
Poverty-weed ? Iva axillaries
Jaumea ? Jaumea carnosa
Rayless smooth goldfields ? Lasthenia glaberrima
Smooth goldfields ? Lasthenia glabrata
Salt marsh fleabane ? Pluchea odorata
Marsh ragwort ? Senecio hydrophilus

Borage family (Boraginaceae)
Menzies? fiddleneck ? Amsinckia menziesii
Wild heliotrope ? Heliotropium curassavicum
Popcorn flower ? Plagiobothrys bracteatus

Mustard family (Brassicaceae)
Broadleaf pepperweed ? Lepidium latifolium
Radish ? Raphanus sativus

Carnation or pink family (Caryophyllaceae)
Perennial saltmarsh sand spurrey ? Spergularia macrotheca
Annual saltmarsh sand spurrey ? Spergularia marina

Morning glory family (Convolvulaceae)
Alkali-weed ? Cressa truxillensis

Dodder family (Cuscutaceae)
Salt marsh dodder ? Cuscuta salina

Pea family (Fabaceae)
Bird?s-foot trefoil ? Lotus corniculatus

Frankenia family (Frankeniaceae)
Alkali-heath ? Frankenia salina

Gentian family (Gentianaceae)
Centaury ? Centaurium venustum

Loosestrife family (Lythraceae)
Hyssop-leaf loosestrife ? Lythrum hyssopifolium

Broomrape family (Orobanchaceae, traditionally Scrophulariaceae)
Salt marsh owl?s-clover ? Castilleja ambigua
Soft bird?s-beak ? Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollis
Northern salt marsh bird?s-beak ? Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. palustris

Plantain family (Plantaginaceae)
Rattail plantain ? Plantago coronopus
Dwarf plantain ? Plantago elongate
Seaside plantain ? Plantago maritimus

Buckwheat family (Polygonaceae)
Common knotweed ? Polygonum arenastrum
Marin knotweed ? Polygonum marinense
Knotweed ?Polygonum patulum
Knotweed ? Polygonum prolificum
Curly dock ? Rumex crispus
Golden dock ? Rumex maritimus
Western dock ? Rumex occidentalis

Primrose family (Primulaceae)
Sea-milkwort ? Glaux maritima

Rose family (Rosaceae)
Silverweed ? Potentilla anserine

Grasses and Graminoids (Grasses, sedges, rushes, other monocots)

Sedge family (Cyperaceae)
Clustered field sedge ? Carex praegracilis
Common spikerush ? Eleocharis macrostachya
Dwarf spikerush ? Eleocharis parvula
Hardstem tule ? Scirpus acutus (Schoenoplectus acutus)
Three-square bulrush ? Scirpus americanus (Schoenoplectus americanus)
Tule ? Scirpus californicus (Schoenoplectus californicus)
Low bulrush ? Scirpus cernuus (Isolepis cernuus)
Alkali-bulrush ? Scirpus maritimus (Bolboschoenus maritimus)

Rush family (Juncaceae)
Wire rush ? Juncus balticus (Juncus arcticus)
Toad rush ? Juncus bufonius
Black-grass ? Juncus gerardii
Iris-leaved rush ? Juncus xiphioides

Arrow-grass family (Juncaginaceae)
Creeping sea arro-grass ? Triglochin concinna
Sea arrow-grass ? Triglochin maritime

Lily family (Liliaceae)
Asparagus ? Asparagus officinalis

Grass family (Poaceae)
Australian bentgrass ? Agrostis avenacea
Saltgrass ? Distichlis spicata
Red fescue ? Festuca rubra
Hedgehog dogtail grass ? Cynosurus echinatus
Meadow barley ? Hordeum brachyantherum
Mediterranean barley ? Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum
Creeping wildrye ? Leymus triticoides
Italian ryegrass ? Lolium multiflorum
Rabbit?sfoot grass ? Polypogon monspeliensis
Sicklegrass ? Parapholis incurve
Alaska alkali-grass ? Puccinelia nutkaensis

Cattail family (Typhaceae)
Narrowleaf cattail ? Typha angustifolia
Southern cattail ? Typha dominguensis
Broadleaf cattail ? Typha latifolia


Alaska alkali-grass: Puccinelia nutkaensis
alkali-bulrush: Scirpus maritimus (Bolboschoenus maritimus)
alkali-heath: Frankenia salina
alkali-weed: Cressa truxillensis
amaranth family: Amaranthaceae
arrow-grass family: Juncaginaceae
asparagus: Asparagus officinalis
aster family: Asteraceae
Australian bentgrass: Agrostis avenacea
Baltic rush: Juncus balticus (Juncus arcticus)
bird?s-foot trefoil: Lotus corniculatus
black-grass: Juncus gerardii
borage family: Boraginaceae
brass-buttons: Cotula coronopifolia
broadleaf cattail: Typha latifolia
broadleaf pepperweed: Lepidium latifolium
broomrape family: Orobanchaceae (traditionally Scrophulariaceae)
buckwheat: Polygonaceae
butterweed: Senecio hydrophilus
California sea-blite: Suaeda californica
canchalangua: Centaurium venustum
carnation family: Caryophyllaceae
carpetweed family: Aizoaceae
carrot family: Apiaceae
cattail family: Typhaceae
centaury: Centaurium venustum
chairmaker?s rush: Scirpus americanus (Schoenoplectus americanus)
clustered field sedge: Carex praegracilis
common fiddleneck: Amsinckia menziesii
common knotweed: Polygonum arenastrum
common spikerush: Eleocharis macrostachya
coyote-brush: Baccharis pilularis
creeping sea arrow-grass: Triglochin maritime
creeping spikerush: Eleocharis macrostachya
creeping wildrye: Leymus triticoides
curly dock: Rumex crispus
ditch-carrot: Oenanthe sarmentosa
dodder family: Cuscutaceae
dwarf plantain: Plantago elongata
dwarf spikerush: Eleocharis parvula
fat-hen: Atriplex triangularis (A. prostrate)
Frankenia family: Frankeniaceae
gentian family: Gentianacaea
golden dock: Rumex maritimus
grass family: Poaceae
hardstem tule: Scirpus acutus
hedgehog dogtail grass: Cynosurus echinatus
Hottentot-fig: Carpobrotus edulis x chilensis
hyssop-leaf loosestrife: Lythrum hyssopifolium
iceplant: Carpobrotus edulis x chilensis
iris-leaved rush: Juncus xiphioides
Italian ryegrass: Lolium multiflorum
jaumea: Jaumea carnosa
Johnny-nip: Castilleja ambigua
knotweed: Polygonum arenastrum
knotweed: Polygonum patulum
knotweed: Polygonum prolificum
lily family: Liliaceae
loosestrife family: Lythraceae
low bulrush: Scirpus cernuus (Isolepis cernuus)
Marin knotweed: Polygonum marinense
marsh ragwort: Senecio hydrophilus
Mason?s lilaeopsis: Lilaeopsis masonii
meadow barley: Hordeum brachyantherum
Mediterranean barley: Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum
Mediterranean saltwort: Salsola soda
Menzies? fiddleneck: Amsinckia menziesii
morning-glory family: Convolvulaceae
mustard family: Brassicaceae
narrowleaf cattail: Typha angustifolia
New Zealand spinach: Tetragonia tetragonioides
northern salt marsh bird?s-beak: Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. palustris
Pacific aster: Aster chilensis
pea family: Fabaceae
pickleweed: Salicornia subterminalis (Arthrocnemum subterminale)
pickleweed, annual: Salicornia europaea
pickleweed, perennial pickleweed: Salicornia virginica (Sarcocornia pacifica)
pink family: Caryophyllaceae
plaintain family: Plantaginaceae
Point Reyes bird?s-beak (misnomer): Cordylanthus maritimus ssp. palustris
popcorn flower: Plagiobothrys bracteatus
poverty-weed: Iva axillaries
primrose family: Primulaceae
rabbit?s-foot grass: Polypogon monspeliensis
radish: Raphanus sativus
rattail plantain: Plantago coronopus
rayless smooth goldfields: Lasthenia glaberrima
red fescue: Festuca rubra
rose family: Rosaceae
rush family: Juncaceae
salt marsh dodder: Cuscuta salina
salt marsh fleabane: Pluchea odorata
salt marsh owl?s clover: Castilleja ambigua
salt rush: Juncus balticus (Juncus arcticus)
saltgrass: Distichlis spicata
saltmarsh baccharis: Baccharis douglasii
saltmarsh mulefat: Baccharis douglasii
saltmarsh sand spurrey, annual: Spergularia marina
saltmarsh sand spurrey, perennial: Spergularia macrotheca
San Francisco Bay gumplant: Grindelia stricta
sea arrow-grass: Triglochin concinna
sea dock: Rumex maritimus
sea-fig: Carpobrotus edulis x chilensis
sea-milkwort: Glaux maritime
seaside plantain: Plantago maritimus
sedge family: Cyperaceae
sicklegrass: Parapholis incurve
silverweed: Potentilla anserine
slender-leaf iceplant: Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum
slough mustard: Lepidium latifolium
smooth goldfields: Lasthenia glabrata
soft bird?s-beak: Cordylanthus mollis ssp. mollis
southern cattail: Typha dominguensis
spearscale: Atriplex triangularis (A. prostrate)
Suisun Marsh aster: Aster lentus
three-square bulrush: Scirpus americanus (Schoenoplectus americanus)
toad rush: Juncus bufonius
tule: Scirpus acutus
tule: Scirpus californicus (Schoenoplectus californicus)
water-parsley: Oenanthe sarmentosa
western dock: Rumex occidentalis
western goldernrod: Euthamia occidentalis
whitetop: Lepidium latifolium
wild beet: Beta vulgaris
wild celery: Apium graveolens
wild heliotrope: Heliotropium curassavicum
wire rush: Juncus balticus (Juncus arcticus)
yellow-rayed goldfields: Lasthenia glabrata

Regions Impacted: (See related documents in region) USA, Pacific, Southwest

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