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Lessons From Leafy Spurge and Yellow Starthistle - NCAP


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PDF 5 pages 2 species by CAROLINE COX JOURNAL OF PESTICIDE REFORM/ SPRING 1998 ? VOL.18, NO. 1 Noxious weeds are non-native plants, mostly weeds of rangeland or pasture, that are classified under federal and state law as having negative impacts on agriculture. In many states, counties, and cities, control of noxious weeds is mandated by law.

Leafy spurge and yellow starthistle are examples of noxious weeds that are widespread in the Pacific Northwest. Both species are commonly found in disturbed areas, have characteristics that make them successful weeds, and have been difficult to manage with herbicides. For both of these weeds nonchemical management techniques are successful, including mowing, grazing, burning, mulching, seeding of desirable plants, and introduction of biological control agents.

What can leafy spurge and yellow starthistle teach us about management of noxious weeds in general? Seven important lessons emerge: 1) Noxious weeds have been with us for decades, and there is time to develop successful and sustainable management strategies; 2) A focus on eliminating the causes of weed problems is imperative, so that we create long-term solutions; 3) Biological control is a useful and cost-effective technique; 4) Management techniques need to include tools to reduce seed populations; 5) Encouragement of desirable vegetation is crucial; 6) Proper timing can maximize the effectiveness of nonchemical controls; and 7) Techniques must be appropriate for the treatment site.

Lessons From Leafy Spurge and Yellow Starthistle - NCAP
Nonchemical management of Noxious Weeds

References
1. U.S. Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. Oregon State Office. 1994. Noxious weed strategy for Oregon/Washington. Portland, OR, Aug.
2. Lorenz, R.J. and R.G. Lym. 1993. A chronology of leafy spurge research. Proc. Western Weed Soc. 46:30-35.
3. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Undated. The ecological areawide management (T.E.A.M.) - Leafy spurge. www.team.ars.usda.gov.
4. Dunn, P.H. 1985. Origins of leafy spurge in North America. In Watson, A.K. (ed.) Leafy spurge. Monograph Series of the Weed Science Society of America. No. 3. Champaign IL. Pp. 7-13.
5. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1997. Biological control of leafy spurge. Program Aid No. 1435.
6. Lym, R.G. 1991. Economic impact, classification, distribution, and ecology of leafy spurge. In James, L.F. et al. (eds.) Noxious range weeds. Westview Special Studies in Agriculture Science and Policy. Boulder CO: Westview Press. Pp. 169-181.
7. Marks, J. 1997. This goat likes to pig out. Check out these weedeaters. Oregon?s Agricultural Progress (Fall):15-17.
8. Lesley Richman, U.S. Bureau of Land Management weed control coordinator, Burns District. Personal communication, February 4, 1998.
9. Elliot, T. 1997. Sheep, beetles pair up to control leafy spurge. In Hilander, S.K. (ed.) Weeds as teachers: The ?many little hammers? weed management alternative. Proceedings of a November 1995 conference. Helena, MT: Alternative Energy Resources Organization. Pp.32-35.
10. McClay, A. 1994. An overview of biological control of leafy spurge in Alberta. Abstract of a presentation at the Leafy Spurge Symposium, July 1994, Bozeman, MT. Available from U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service (ARS). 1995. Purge spurge; Leafy Spurge Database.
11. Harris, P. 1991. Classical spurge biological control with insects and pathogens. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service. Proc. Leafy Spurge Control Coordination/Planning Meeting, April 23-25, 1991. Minneapolis, MN.
12. Van Vleet, S. 1994. The establishment, increase, and impact of Aphthona spp. in Fremont County, Wyoming. (Abstract.) Leafy Spurge Symposium, July 1994, Bozeman, MT. Available from U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. ARS. 1995. Purge spurge; Leafy Spurge Database.
13. Hansen, R. Undated. Aphthona czwalinae. In Weeden, C, T. Shelton, and M. Hoffman (eds.) Biological control: A guide to natural enemies in North America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. www.nysaes.cornell.edu/ent/biocontrol/.
14. Johnston, A. and R.W. Peake. 1960. Effect of selective grazing by sheep on the control of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) J. Range Manage. 13(4):192-195.
15. Sedivic, K.K. and R.P. Maine. 1993. Angora goat grazing as a biological control for leafy spurge; A three-year summary. Proc. of the 1993 Great Plains Agricultural Council Leafy Spurge Task Force Symposium; July 26-28, 1993, Silvercreek, CO. Available from U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. ARS. 1995. Purge spurge; Leafy Spurge Database.
16. McCoy, P.R. 1997. Angora power. Capital Press - Idaho edition (June 20):1-2.
17. Dovel, Randy, agronomist, Oregon State Univ. Klamath Experiment Station. Personal communication, February 4, 1998.
18. Biesboer, D.D., B. Darveaux, and W.L. Koukkari. 1994. Controlling leafy spurge and Canada thistle by competitive species. Final report. Submitted to Minnesota Dept. of Transportation. Office of Research Administration. St. Paul, MN, June.
19. DiTomaso, J.M. 1996. Biology of major roadside weeds. Proc. 48th Annual Calif. Weed Sci. Soc. Pp.69-73.
20. Thomsen, C. and W.A. Williams. 1992. Yellow starthistle control. Components 3(1):2-6.
21. Coombs, E.M. 1996. Improving biological control of yellow starthistle with geographic information systems. Proc. of a Symposium on Sustaining Ecosystems. Eastern Oregon State College, LaGrande, OR. 29-31 Aug. 1994. Oregon State Univ. Extension Service. Special report No. 953. Pp. 65-70.
22. Gerlach, J.D. Jr. 1997. The introduction, dynamics of geographic range expansion, and ecosystem effects of yellow star-thistle (Centaurea solstitialis). Proc. 49th Annual Calif. Weed Sci. Soc. Pp.136-141.
23. Prather, T.S. 1994. Biology of yellow starthistle. Proc. 46th Annual Calif. Weed Sci. Soc. San Jose, CA. Pp. 219-223.
24. Roch?, B. F., C.T. Roch?, and R.C. Chapman. 1994. Impacts of grassland habitat on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.) invasion. Northw. Sci. 68(2):86-91.
25. DiTomaso, J.M. 1997. Control of yellow starthistle with burning, mowing and herbicides. Proc. 49th Annual Calif. Weed Sci. Soc. Pp.142-145.
26. E.P. Fuerst. 1996. Physiological characterization of picloram resistance in yellow starthistle. Pest. Biochem. Physiol. 56:149-161.
27. Thomsen, C.D., M. Vayssieres, and W.A. Williams. Grazing and mowing management of yellow starthistle. 1994. Proc. 46th Annual Calif. Weed Sci. Soc. San Jose, CA. Pp. 228-230.
28. Thomsen, C.D., M. P. Vayssieres, and W.A. Williams. 1997. Mowing and subclover plantings suppress yellow starthistle. Calif. Agricul. (Nov.- Dec.):15-20.
29. Hastings, M.S. and J.M. DiTomaso. 1996. Fire controls yellow star thistle in California grasslands: Test plots at Sugarloaf Ridge State Park. Restoration & Management Notes 14(2):124-128.
30. Turner, C.E. 1994. Biological control of yellow starthistle: 1994 update. Proc. 46th Annual Calif. Weed Sci. Soc. San Jose, CA. Pp. 224-227.
31. Oregon Dept. of Agriculture. Noxious Weed Control Program. 1996. Biological control of weeds project summaries: 1996. Salem, OR.
32. Dremann, C.C. 1996. Grasses and mulch control yellow-star thistle (California). Restoration & Management Notes 14(1):79.
33. Hobbs, R.J. and S.E. Humphries. 1995. An integrated approach to the ecology and management of plant invasions. Conserv. Biol. 9(4):761-770. 34. McEvoy, P.B. 1996. Host specificity and biological control. BioScience 46(6):401-404.
35. DeLoach, C.J. 1997. Biological control of weeds in the U.S. and Canada. In Luken, J.O., and J.W. Thieret. (eds.) Assessment and management of plant invasions. New York: Springer- Verlag.
36. McMurty, J.A. et al. 1995. A historical overview of regional research project W-84. In J.R. Nechols, et al. (eds.) Biological control in the western United States. Univ. of California Div. of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Publ. 3361. Pp.3-5.

Geography: USA - All States, Canada - All Provinces
Regions impacted: Central Plains - Great Lakes - Mid Atlantic - Middle Atlantic - Middle West - Midwest - MidWestern - New England - Northeast - Northeastern - Northwest - Northwestern - Pacific - Pacific Alaska - Rocky Mountain South Atlantic - Southeast - Southern - Southwest

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