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White Paper
On the Ergonica Weed Twister and Other Alternatives to Precise Hand Weeding in Agricultural Applications

Is there a Smarter, Safer Way
to Control Weeds on the Farm?
Surgical Precision When and Where you Need it!

See Weeder Features for Home Garden Weeding Tools Classification

Background and Latest Developments in Weeding Tools

Weed Twister - Now Stronger, Longer!

WEED TWISTER
Strong and Deft
Weed Deterrence

Translation ---

 

Page 1 of 2 > (Weeding Tools Specifications and Comparisons)

BACKGROUND

Updated  November 17, 2013

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Special crops require the use of special tools to protect them against weeds left behind by cultivation, chemical treatment, hand weeding, hand rogueing, hot capping or flaming, and other, less effective, applications and hand weeding tools.  The Ergonica Weed Twister was designed to more efficiently penetrate the soil with a minimum of soil disturbance and extract both new seedlings and deep roots of various shapes and sizes more precisely and efficiently than other hand tools and weeders, including various hoes, weed pullers, weed poppers and other weed twisters.  As California, along with other states, is embarking on a new era in agriculture when traditional methods of hand weeding are being reexamined and new alternatives for precision weeding and the short hoe are being explored, a greater emphasis on creative tool design is mandated.   A tool, such as the Weed Twister, which promises to provide powerful deep root extraction as well as efficient precise hoeing and tilling, is causing much excitement in the agricultural community. 

Much of this excitement is the result of a legacy of conflicts between the health of farm workers and the growers' demands for efficient and precise weeding.  After the short hoe was banned in 1978, farm workers were forced to remove weeds by hand for many hours a day.  Some would argue that this was more damaging to the health of farm workers than the use of the short hoe.   Recent litigation between the UFW, represented by CRLAF, and California growers has climaxed in Cal OSHA regulations that not only prohibit the use of the short hoe but also severely restrict the use of hand weeding. 

Machines are working, but people are broken!

One of the latest developments for mechanized hand weeding is a controversial human-hybrid weeding machine which supports several workers prostrate on their abdomens and allows them to pull weeds by their hands, literally laying down on the job!  This practice was recently described as inhumane in a Southern California periodical La Opinión.   The article from Lamont, California, is entitled El Valle Central: pobreza que duele / The Central Valley: poverty that hurts.  One of the workers complained that they finished work seeing stars, feeling sick to the stomach and with the neck all in pain ("Terminamos viendo estrellitas, mareadas y con el cuello todo adolorido").  Whether this is a sign of the future, given that there is already a scarcity of farm workers in California and other areas, remains to be seen. 

Is this the organic farming worst case scenario?  Hopefully, they won't further harness the workers' legs to save gas and extract their bodily fluids to fertilize the soil in the next generation of this human-hybrid weeding machine?  These flat bed weeders or bedweeders, as they are called, are sometimes used for weeding carrots and other vegetables often with the intent of reducing the trauma caused by alternative methods as well as more efficiently getting the job done.  You get an intelligent beast of burden with good hand-eye coordination for minimum wages, and you don't have to worry about his or her survival, because the workers are sustained in poverty throughout the western hemisphere!  This overwhelming poverty yields a nearly endless supply of people of Latin origin who will sacrifice their sweat and blood to feed hungry children back home. 

Robotic Suit for Farmers: Japanese scientists at the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in early 2009 demonstrated a prototype wearable assistance machine equipped with eight motors and 16 sensors.  This robot suit for farmers is designed to allow a farm worker to lift heavy objects, pull weeds and  reduce the heavy burden of harvesting as the nation's farm industry faces an ageing, shrinking workforce.  The 25-kilogramme (55-pound) device is intended to assist elderly farmers who need support for their leg muscles and joints when they keep a crouching position or lift their arms high. The researchers said they were looking to commercial use of the suit in two to three years at an initial price ranging from 500,000 yen to one million yen (about 5,000 to 10,000 dollars).   That's a lot of yen, and 55 pounds is a lot of weight for an ageing farmer or itinerant farm worker, but it may be a good deal if they include a Turbo Weed Twister with a built-in torque power supply in the final package!  At least this outfit supports an upright farmer, as opposed to the prostrate bedweeder design shown above.
 
We believe
the creative genius of the American farmer and supporting industries can do better in the 21st century.  Efficiency is not always the bottom line!  Unfortunately, the laws and regulations in California and other states do not currently protect the workers against these types of abuses.  Your own conscience may determine the bottom line for you or your farm, organic or otherwise. Some carrot growers in Colorado have found flame weeding and long handled tools to be an effective and ergonomic alternative, for example.  There are many other economic alternatives including very precise hand weeders like the Ergonica Weed Twister as well as effective mulching and other methods described below.

Human-hybrid Weeding Machine (Flat Bed Weeder - Bedweeder)


Ardua labor. Estas mujeres trabajan casi 10 horas al día en condiciones infrahumanas. (Araceli Martínez/La Opinión)

Lamont, California, March 2007, El Valle Central: pobreza que duele

Robotic Suit for Farmers

A student uses the robot suit to pull a radish plant

Enforcement of safety regulations in California agriculture has recently (2008) led to 28 inspections on January 23 and 24 and the issuance of 26 violations totaling $12,750 in penalties, as reported by the California Department of Industrial Relations.  Employers were cited for not paying minimum wage, failing to provide sufficient meal and rest periods, inappropriate operation of driverless tractors and operating tractors with defective seat belts. Citations were also issued for failure to provide adequate tools for hand weeding, not providing adequate toilets on site and having drinking water too far away from work areas.  These citations were issued by the Economic and Employment Enforcement Coalition (EEEC) in Imperial and Riverside counties.  The EEEC is a multi-agency task force designed to root out California’s underground economy by enforcing California labor laws, and educating business owners and workers about those laws and regulations in workshops held regularly statewide.

The Coachella Valley Farmworkers Survey (www.iurd.org) interviewed 525 farm workers in 2006, reporting that 54 percent were legal immigrants, 37 percent unauthorized, and nine percent US citizens. About 71 percent do not speak English, and 72 percent live in the area year round, although 58 percent reported going to Mexico for medical care.

Clearly, the organic farming industry does not need to be labeled as anti-herbicide and pro-homicide, given that their consumers are likely very conscientious!  The organic standard is an important contribution to higher quality and safer foods.  Perhaps, there also needs to be an additional voluntary 'labor kind' standard for farms and employers defined by the way they treat their workers, a standard that goes beyond the minimal labor codes and includes consideration for the feelings, pains and remuneration of workers?  Studies in some parts of the world such as Africa, for example, have documented a cultural preference for short-handled hoes despite the resulting discomfort and health hazards for female workers.  

Sustainable agriculture should also mean sustaining the health, prosperity and human dignity of every hand that touches our food.  The tools employers choose or don't choose can either empower or enslave our human resources.  A number of other weeding machines images are presented by the European Weed Research Society including the rotary hoe, flexible chain harrow, spring tine harrow, Lilliston rotary weeder, horizontal-axis brush hoe, vertical-axis brush hoe, compressed air and brushes, finger weeder and torsion weeders.  None of these machines is based on human sacrifice.

Three new cultivation tools were recently compared (year 2007) with a traditional between-row cultivator, an herbicide control, and the conventional herbicide-plus-cultivator weed management program used in a first-year strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) planting. The new implements were (1) a Rabe Werk flex-tine harrow, (2) a Buddingh finger weeder, and (3) a Bärtschi brush hoe.   This study showed an improvement in productivity when using certain cultivators for situations in which labor is scarce.  Organic growers, and growers who plant in nontraditional annual systems, may benefit from their use as well.  An abstract of this study was published in HortTechnology 17: 9-141 (2007) under the title Cultivation Tools to Reduce Hand Hoeing in Matted-Row Strawberries, with authors Mary Jo Kelly, Marvin P. Pritts and Robin R. Bellinder, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.   This study, unfortunately, did not endeavor to compare the efficiency of various hand hoeing tools for this application.  Such a comparison in scientific measures would be most useful to farmers of various vegetable crops as well as to the organic farming industry in general.

Can classical music help to control weeds and pests?  The green revolution may have outlived its initial impetus but the music revolution may be the next big thing in agricultural innovation.  For two brothers in Punjab playing music to their crops has produced a bumper harvest and with fertilizers and pesticides wrecking havoc on the soil this might be a viable and entertaining alternative.  These two brothers of Sangrur district in Punjab, for the last 2 years have not used any pesticide for their crop grown on a 6-acre land.  Instead, they decided to treat their crop to a dose of music. They claim the yield has gone up by 5 per cent but more importantly the quality has been phenomenally well.  This remarkable innovation was reported by NDTV.COM in January, 2008.  Unfortunately, the article doesn't tell us whether Mozart, Chopin or Bach was more effective?

Beyond the legal, moral and health issues, the ongoing needs for better efficiency and sustainable agriculture energize the movement for technical advances.  Because of its power and precision, as well as an ergonomic, light-weight design, the unique Ergonica Weed Twister is being regarded by many experts as an essential tool for every farm and garden where exceptional care is a must.  Although hand weeding has long been considered the most precise manner of protecting crops, Ergonica presents a challenge to a higher level of surgical precision by using a tool that more effectively removes weeds that are often left behind by hand weeding methods.  Whether weeding strawberries or other cash crops, removing volunteer potatoes or stubborn mallow weeds, or harvesting truffles worth over $100 per pound or $300 per ounce at some consumer markets, surgical precision in an efficient and ergonomic framework is an ideal standard that the farming industry should ultimately expect. 

Weeding and propagating are essentially the two principal arts of agriculture:

Unless you grow crops in the desert or in artificial platforms, before you plant or germinate your crop, you must clear the existing vegetation, whether it is native or introduced. Thus, agriculture may be seen as the art of nurturing and separating preferred plants in a selected area from the undesired plants that thereby become identified as 'weeds'. The designated weeds may be relatively useless plants or sometimes, unfortunately, native flora and forests of value to other parties and species as well as to the regional ecology. Effective separation and selective nurturing become critical due to the economies of space, time and resources.

In this setting, the creative leaders of the agricultural industry are invited to design and implement new methods, tools and technologies to solve perhaps one of the oldest problems in the civilized world.  We are focusing our attention in this paper on the design of hand tools that offer more precision than the tractor-driven cultivators and mechanical weeding devices available today.

To be comprehensive in our perspective, we should not rule out the possibility that in the future there may be new tractor-driven mechanical weeders with more precision than those available today.  Herbicides are also widely and effectively used in agriculture.   Flaming (hot capping) with a propane torch is widely used on young organic crops and other crops in appropriate circumstances.  Yet, with the best of our chemicals, flaming techniques,  tractor-driven tools and integrated weed management, our industry in California and elsewhere is still beset with the demand for additional applications of more precise weeding for at least a few crops. 

The precise weeding crops in California include commodities like celery, cabbage, lettuce, broccoli, spinach, carrots and strawberries, for example.  Some nursery crops also require hand-weeding.  For some of these crops, California grows as much as half or more of the total national production.  Growers do not like to hand weed because of its cost.  Some growers cite the costs of hand weeding to be 2 to 10 times more per acre than other types of weed-control practices.  Growers indicate that some of the crops or conditions that may require hand weeding or thinning include:

Twisting Out Mallow Weeds - Oxnard, California 

In the fields of Oxnard, California, the Weed Twister removes mallow in this scene of a preliminary demonstration.

Conditions Requiring Hand Weeding or Thinning

1. Hard to see weeds because of dense crop and/or plant cover. (cabbage)
2. Little spacing between plants. (carrots, onions, leeks, garlic)
3. Must remove weeds (and any damaged plants) from plant bed before harvesting. (spring mix, lettuce, parsley)
4. Weeds growing immediately next to plants.
5. Removing doubles.
6. Nursery plants in containers.
7. Weeds under organic grapes on steep hillsides.
8. Various plants grown for seed.
9. Use of drip tape.
10. Use of plastic mulch or woven cloth.
11. Use of netting to support flowers.
12. Use of long-handled hoe might not kill the weed.
13. Use of long-handled hoe can be cumbersome when one hand is required to carry a bag to  dispose of weeds, move aside large leaves, or gather the harvested plants.

 

Hand Weeding Farm Lab - Davis, California

Weed Twister vs Mallow UC Davis Weed Twister vs Mallow UC Davis

Weed Twister vs Mallow UC Davis Weed Twister vs Mallow UC Davis Dr. Tom Lanini

Recent tests of the Weed Twister vs. mallow and other late season weeds at UC Davis in California.  Dr. Tom Lanini, Weed Ecologist, is shown smiling with a large mallow grasped by the Weed Twister in bottom right photo.

According to a study by P. W. Owston and L. P. Abrahamson hand weeding has been the mainstay of forest -nursery weed-control programs.  Amounts reported vary from 1 to 80 person-hours per acre over an entire season, the variation resulting from differences in weed populations, management philosophies, and other practices.

The need for precise weeding in agriculture is as old as the history of agriculture itself.  What is new in California, is the greater interest in this society for the protection of the health and safety of farm workers.  The trend of increasing organic farming also demands alternatives to harmful chemicals often resulting in hand-weeding and the use of precise hand tools.

The Weed Twister and other hand tools of its class that we will examine and compare in this paper, are all fairly simple in design, have few, if any, moving parts, and, for the most part, are not motorized, except for the new drill-ready Turbo Weed Twister.  With all the technology available in California, often housed in the same valleys which nurture our bountiful crops, we are not yet at the point where we are discussing more sophisticated tools.  A classification and comparison of other hand tools used primarily in home gardens is presented on the Weeder Features page.

Perhaps the new regulations may spur the imagination of California's technology leaders to invent the laser weeder, for example.  Imagine a light weight laser wand that can exterminate any weed of any size and shape with a lightning-quick zap?  Could the next evolution be the robo weeder?  Visualize the robotic rover automatically weaving through the fields and deftly taking out each enemy by intelligently making the identity and status of every growing thing in its path.  Recent advances in online graphic object recognition, such as the work being done by Microsoft, may eventually lead to uploading images of plants by cell phone and receiving a species identification search response. 

Robotic Cultivator System

Sometime within the next few years, though, there may be a new mechanized weeding system available to growers, which will save them hundreds of dollars per acre. Over the past three years, David Slaughter, a researcher at the University of California-Davis, has been working on perfecting a precision weed control robotic cultivator system that can tell the difference between weed seedlings and tomato seedlings in the field.  On the back of the mechanism, there would be several mounted miniature hooded sprayers that would go in between the rows and spot spray the weeds, leaving the tomato plants and everything else in the field untouched.  Machine vision based detection of volunteer potatoes in cropped fields is also being studied by the Wageningen University, a Dutch university in Europe, which claims to be the leading European university in the Life Sciences.  The Hortibot is another design in development in by Rasmus Jørgensen in Denmark that may use mechanical means to remove weeds as well as chemical sprays. 

A solar-powered robot with 20/20 vision, on a search-and-destroy quest for weeds, will soon be moving up and down the crop rows at the experimental fields at the University of Illinois. What's more, this robot has the potential to control weeds while significantly reducing herbicide use.  The robot uses GPS for navigation, and there are two small cameras mounted on a frame on top of the machine to give the robot depth perception, just like a human, according to Lei Tian, agricultural engineer at the U of I. "If he sees a weed, he can actually tell how far away it is."  An on-board computer offers access to information that provides the morphological features of plants, to help the robot determine just what is and isn't a weed. Once a weed is identified, a robotic arm attached to the front of the machine engages a device the researcher calls "a custom-designed end effector."

Solar-Powered Robot Weeder

Robot Weeder University of Illinois

Robocrop InRow - The Revolutionary Robotic Weeder!

Using similar image analysis techniques to those used on the Robocrop 2 high speed hoes, Robocrop InRow analyses images of the crop immediately in front of the weeder. Applying a predetermined grid and best fit logical deduction techniques individual plants are pinpointed and tracked through the image. The weeding rotors are then synchronised to work around each individual plant, the rotor speed being continually adjusted to take into account plant spacing variations. The InRow rotors are then followed up by a set of inter-row cultivation units to complete the all round cultivation process. Performance is 2 plants per second per row.

 

Click for larger image!

Click for larger image!

We acknowledge that new technology is often a double edged sword.  New jobs are created and old jobs are eliminated.  More efficiency usually means lower cost and less people on the payroll.  Politics and legal conflict have brought us to the historical point where we are today examining new and old methods of precisely removing weeds.  The grower will benefit by better tools and methods of precise weed removal regardless of the political context of the day.  More efficient and ergonomic tools will be of value to both growers and laborers whether or not traditional methods are restricted by society.

ERGONICA WEED TWISTER

Although we're not talking about the robo weeder or the laser weeder here, the patented double helix design of the Ergonica Weed Twister is an advanced state of the art of probing and pulling out weeds by the roots in a precise and efficient manner.   Its pointed double coils are designed to efficiently penetrate the soil and can be used to screw deeply into the root structure of the weed.  The coils can also be applied as a circle-shaped hoe, gliding along a shallow path beneath the surface of the soil to unearth new weeds and seedlings with very short root structures.  Both the deep root extracting and the shallow depth hoeing applications of the Weed Twister are of special importance to precise weeding in the agricultural setting.  We will examine these and other features more analytically in comparison to competing designs below.

Organic Growers may Use this tool as an alternative to hand weeding when crops are closely spaced and extra precision and care is required. Works great for both new seedlings and deep-rooted weeds in various situations including around the edges of plastic mulch. View this new lineup of Weed Twister models as an alternative to short-handled tools and knives that often injure workers and increase labor costs.

Several Weed Twister features have ergonomic value.  The name of the manufacturer, Ergonica, was derived from "Ergonomic America."  The standard model is 36 inches in length and weighs about one pound.  This design has been in production and distribution through internet marketing in the United States for several years.  Although it has never been distributed through normal retail channels, the Weed Twister has thousands of happy customers who often come back and buy extra Weed Twisters as gifts for their friends.  A few nursery stores in southern California also carry the original 36-inch Weed Twister model.

In the agricultural setting, a longer handle prototype has been designed for testing and development and is now available for online purchase.  We have recently tested a 42-inch and 48-inch Weed Twister model in several farms in Oxnard and Davis, California, where we successfully removed such weeds as little mallow, goosefoot, yellow nutsedge, purslane, nightshades and lambsquarters.  These were preliminary tests aided by the UC Cooperative Extension and limited in scope with the intent of evaluating the general applicability of this tool in agriculture and to compare the ergonomics of the various Weed Twister models.  These initial agricultural tests have also led to refinements in the design of the tool including the sharpening of the thicker coiled tines, the optional 8-inch T-handle expansion kit, and the addition of the bar grip in the 54-inch model for increased torque strength and speed when twisting into deep roots in clay soil.  

In the spring of 2007, additional tests have been initiated by weed scientists in several states using different Weed Twister models, including the hefty 54-inch Dual Grip model.   Several tests in the United States and Japan have also been focused on using the Weed Twister to remove volunteer potatoes.  In April 2008, the TurboTorx 36 Weed Twister model was made available to provide the convenience of drill-powered speed to clear small and large weeds by their roots with a 36-inch shaft.  This model appears to be a favored approach to economically thin large areas of weeds with a minimum of labor and yet high precision, like all other Weed Twister models. 

The Turbo Weed Twister represents a new level of technology for drill-powered weeding tools due to the engineering of the unique sleeve grip and other advances which allow for a longer shaft without compromising precision and ergonomic safety.  This enhances the Ergonica Weed Twister line of weeding tools from a manual operation to a semi-automated solution to weeds, small and large, left behind by herbicides and other mechanical processes.  Should this be the arm of the ultimate weeder robot?

We invite the agricultural community to help us test these models of the Weed Twister with other crops and weeds in comparison with other methods and tools of interest.  Students in agricultural programs in California may ask their instructors if they can participate in some of these tests as a part of their studies or science projects.   Other science project suggestions are listed on the Science Projects page. 

Noxious weeds such as the sow thistle, recently discovered in Santa Barbara County vegetable fields for the first time, may also be good targets for testing the Weed Twister.  Lists of noxious weeds for California and other states including images of each weed are identified and linked on this site on the Weed Identification pages. 

Ergonica Drill-Ready Turbo Weed Twister

A new level of technology for drill-powered weeding tools!

Click for larger image of the Turbo Weed Twister!

Save the Farm from excessive labor overhead!

While fully automated robotic weeding machines are still in the development and testing phases, it appears that a semi-automated solution, such as a drill-powered device may provide relief to weed pressure without excessive labor costs.  Perhaps a robotic device may be hooked up with a Turbo Weed Twister instead of a jet of chemicals?  What it takes is possibly looking outside the box of chemicals, as productive as they have been in the recent decades, and looking for quicker and more efficient plant removing mechanical tools controlled by robotic weed detection and guidance systems.

CLASSIFICATION STANDARDS

To meaningfully compare competitive tools and technologies we need to determine the definitions of the applicable classes.  We offer the definitions of the classes we have used as examples to use for reference only.  If needed, we expect the industries involved as well as the appropriate regulating bodies will more formally establish appropriate standards.

Ergonomic - Long Handle

The Ergonomic handle has a length of at least 30 inches.  This is also known as the Long Handle and the Back-Saving Handle.  The standard model of the Weed Twister, with a length of 36 inches, fits into this standard.   A number of other weeders listed on this website also comply with this standard.  A sub-class of this with a length of at least 45 inches is the Extra Long Handle or Industrial Length Handle.  The 48-inch and 54-inch Industrial Weed Twister models fit into this class.  The Full Length Handle has a length of at least 60 inches. 

It should be noted that current Cal OSHSB regulations define long-handled tools as those with handles at least 48 inches in length.  The latest regulations restrict the use of either long-handled or short-handled weeding tools from a stooped, kneeling or squatting position.  The 48-inch Weed Twister model and the 54-inch Dual Grip Weed Twister model would both be acceptable for agricultural use in California.  Hand weeding may be acceptable under the new regulations in situations where it is proven to be the only practical way to effectively remove weeds without damaging crops.

Light Weight

We define a Light Weight hand weeder as a tool with a weight of 2 pounds or less.  A sub-class of this standard would be the Very Light Weight standard with a weight of one pound or less.  The standard Weed Twister, with a weight of one pound, falls into the Very Light Weight classification.  The 48-inch Weed Twister weighs less than two pounds and the 54-inch model with the added bar grip weights 3 pounds.  These standards are appropriate only for the Long Handle tools as defined above.

Precision Weed Removal Tool

The measure of precision is inversely related to the dimensions of the action point of the weed removal tool.  In other words, a 3-inch hoe blade is more precise than a 5-inch hoe blade.  We have used a maximum of 3 inches in width to determine the classification of a tool as Precise.  Most of the hand weeders that are claimed by their manufacturers to be "precise" on the market today fit within the 3-inch standard.  We have extended this class to smaller dimensions by defining the Very Precise class as a tool with an action point width of 2 inches or less.  The Extremely Precise tool has a dimension of one inch or less.  The Weed Twister standard model has a width of 2 inches in diameter and is thereby classified as Very Precise.

Because of the forceful manner by which a hoe is normally applied to the target area, that is with a hammering or hacking motion, the effective precision of this tool may be compromised.  The hacking motion exposes to possible damage anything in the path of the tool and handle as it is applied. With the swift motion, it also requires great accuracy to hit the target precisely and effectively. Every hack increases the possibility of damage to nearby plants.   This increases the effective precision area for a 3-inch hoe blade to possibly 6 inches or more.  Even the short hoe requires a relatively violent motion compared with the Weed Twister and other precision tools on the market today.  Thus, a 3-inch hoe may effectively be not precise since its normal use required by its design exposes to damage an area greater than 3 inches.

STANDARD CLASSIFICATIONS AND ECONOMIC / ERGONOMIC TRADE-OFFS

The standard Weed Twister is a Long Handle, Very Light Weight, Very Precise hand weeder.  When comparing it to other tools, the comparisons should be made against other tools in the same class.  The agricultural models with 48 and 54 inch handles are in a different class.  These models are Extra Long Handle, Light Weight, Very Precise hand weeders. The newest 60-inch model is designed especially for wheelchair gardeners.  If we expand the diameter of the coils of the Weed Twister, we may change it from the Very Precise class to the Precise class.

The trade-offs are fairly straightforward.  The longer handle appears to have more ergonomic value since it requires less bending of the back or stooping.  The 48-inch length also makes it legally acceptable for Cal OSHA standards for long-handled tools.  The 54-inch Dual Grip model weighs a pound more than the 48-inch model.  In other words, the trade-off is more weight for less back stress and compliance with Cal OSHA regulations. 

We propose more tests in agricultural settings with perhaps several lengths to determine the optimum trade-off.   There are actually two advantages to shorter Weed Twister lengths: 1) less weight, and 2) more efficient motion depending on the distance between the worker's hands and the target weeds.  We may also find that the optimum length may depend somewhat on the height of the worker.  In this case, we may offer the grower the option to purchase a number of tools at different lengths, and allow each worker to pick the tool he or she finds to be most comfortable and efficient for himself or herself.

There may also be trade-offs in efficiency when modifying a tool to be more precise.  For example, a 3-inch hoe blade may be less efficient than a 5-inch hoe blade because it takes more work to cover a larger area.  However, it may be less effective when 3-inch precision is necessary to protect the crops. The need for precision is the justification for using relatively inefficient tools.  Depending on how much precision is needed, relatively less efficient tools may be appropriately selected.  We would not be looking at hand tools at all, if the required precision and care for all of our crops could be accomplished with tractor-driven solutions or chemicals.  

The grower needs to evaluate not only if precise methods and hand tools are needed, but also what degree of precision is needed and what cost is affordable to accomplish such precision?

More ... See Page 2 of 2 >  (Weeding Tools Specifications and Comparisons)

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